This is the fourth episode in our series covering the basics of HOPR. Links to previous episodes can be found at the end of the article.

Last time we took a first look at the problem of sending data privately online without anyone being able to track it or work out who is the sender or recipient. Splitting the data into packets and sending each one on a different route through a network of relay nodes is a good first step, but it’s still possible for a powerful attacker to gather enough information to de-anonymize the network.

In this episode…


This is the third episode in our series covering the basics of HOPR. Previous episodes can be found here (Episode 1 — What is HOPR?) and here (Episode 2 — What is Metadata?).

Last time we learned about the huge amount of connection metadata created every time we do anything online. This metadata can be used to build up a profile of all our activities, both on the Internet and off it.

This is a giant problem for privacy, but how can it be fixed? Metadata is an essential part of how the Internet works. …


Just a small snippet of the work going on behind the scenes

Things have been a little quiet on the tech front, but not because we haven’t been busy — quite the opposite, in fact! Since the HOPR token launched in February, we’ve been all hands on deck working towards our upcoming Eiger release.

We know you’ve all been waiting patiently — and some not so patiently — to begin staking your HOPR tokens, but it’s a delicate balancing act creating an implementation that’s secure, robust and fair, and that’s before you throw privacy into the mix.

One huge hurdle has been weaning the protocol off its reliance on bootstrap servers, which…


Ocean Protocol is introducing Ocean Market, a platform for buying and selling access to data. Building the amazon.com of data means keeping mainstream users in mind, which is why the Ocean team decided to build with Portis. In this article, Manan Patel, Growth Accelerator for Ocean, shares their vision with us.

Ocean Market integrates Portis for simple datatokens management.

Jose Aguinaga is a Developer Evangelist representing Portis. Portis is a self-custodial, embedded blockchain wallet. Portis delivers top developer experience to DApp developers, giving their users a friendly onboarding experience.

Jose: Hi Manan, thank you for this brief interview about Ocean Protocol. Let’s get started with some introductions. Could you provide us a quick intro about yourself and Ocean?


The Portis whitepaper showcases how user accounts are generated, encrypted, and safely stored. Using key derivation and end-to-end encryption, your crypto wallet is always under your control, and the keys are only known to you and no one else. But the whitepaper is technical and complicated, so let’s simplify things the best way possible — with alcohol!

Using cryptographically strong techniques, Portis creates a unique account and wallet for you, accessible to no one else, not even Portis. Photo by Artur Lysyuk on Unsplash.

The motto “not your keys, not your crypto” is one of the greatest maxims in the blockchain ecosystem. The challenge lies in the fact that by knowing the keys behind your crypto account, anyone can have access to your assets, and thus, your keys must be only known to you. Services that host your wallets for you are called “custodial” and have been prone to attacks from multiple hackers in the past, as they also hold the private keys for those wallets.

At the same time, your private keys are needed to manage your assets and create transactions. Since only…


Transactions must be signed by a private key in order to hold any value. Since all digital assets are created from transactions, signatures play a critical role in any blockchain. In this article, we’ll learn how Ethereum transactions are signed.

In our previous articles, we went through the process of creating a private key and learned what can be done with it. Specifically, in part one, we learned that keys are nothing more than random numbers of astronomical proportions, whereas in part two we looked at how these numbers can create Ethereum wallets that hold digital assets. In the final part of our miniseries, we will explore how to use these numbers to sign operations to manipulate digital assets and more.

Transactions — out with the old, in with the new

Blockchain transactions are not that different from banking transactions. Sending money to someone, moving money to your savings account…


One of the things HOPR became best known for in 2020 was our incentivized and gamified testnets (RIP Coverbot, we’re not that sad you’re dead!) Our community put a lot of hard work into testing the various versions of our protocol, and 4th March at 14:00 CET is when that hard work pays off with the release of the bounty rewards.

Let’s start with the best news: we’ve decided to issue a 100% bonus on all rewards from our incentivized testnets. The bonus portion will be locked for 18 months, while the original amount will be claimable and liquid straight…


After almost a year of hard development work and testing, we’re very excited to announce the first public release of the HOPR protocol: HOPR Jungfrau.

We need to begin this post with a few warnings, disclaimers and caveats. These are to protect you and the HOPR Association, so please don’t be alarmed, but DO take them seriously.

HOPR is an incredibly early-stage technology that you use at your own risk. The HOPR Association can in no way be held liable for funds lost or locked using the HOPR protocol in its current state.

First, ONLY send wxHOPR to your node…


All crypto addresses come from somewhere. In this second installment in our mini-series, we’ll build on our newfound knowledge of private keys and see how your browser transforms a randomly generated sequence of ones and zeros into a unique wallet address owned by you and you alone.

Disclaimer: Please bear in mind that all the private keys generated and used in this article are only for educational purposes. Do not use any of the code, keys, or addresses shared in this post to hold any kind or amount of crypto assets.

Private keys as raw materials

As mentioned in part one of our mini-series, “Understanding Private Keys,” the procedure for generating a private key relies on pseudo-random number generators (PRNG) with enough entropy. The most important thing to remember about a private key is that it needs to be selected randomly from the integer space 2²⁵⁶-1. …


Private keys are of critical importance in the crypto industry. We recommend all seasoned crypto users learn about their origin, reasoning, and value. Below, we’ll analyze where private keys come from and their relationship with your crypto.

Private keys and their role in crypto

Owning cryptocurrency comes down to merely holding a private key. Unlike in the “real” world, where owning physical property usually involves possessing a deed with your name or a receipt of sale, owning is equivalent to knowing in the crypto world. In simpler terms, knowing a private key is equivalent to owning a crypto asset.

Jose Aguinaga

Web3/Full-Stack. DevOps/Cryptography Enthusiast. Head of Engineering at @hoprnet, previously @MyBit_dapp, @numbrs, @plaid. JavaScript, startups, fintech.

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